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DocBook is a comprehensive - if slightly bloated - file format for large, structured documents. There are SGML and XML variants. DocBook documents can be transformed into a wide variety of printed and electronic formats, including PDF, PS, HTML, CHM, and others.
You can use the LyX-to-X package to write your document conveniently in LyX, then export it to DocBook SGML. This method is presented by Chris Karakas in Document processing with LyX and SGML. Currently it needs LyX 1.2.0 and it will not work with later versions of LyX. The reason for this is that LyX's SGML export creates documents with different errors in different versions and, SGML export error correction is implemented in LyX-to-X only for v. 1.2.0.
In the LyX-to-X project, LyX is used as a comfortable graphical SGML editor. Once the document is exported to SGML from LyX, it undergoes a series of transformations through sed and awk scripts that correct the SGML code, compute the Index, insert the Bibliography and the Appendix and take care of the correct invocation of openjade, pdftex, pdfjadetex and all the other necessary programs for the generation of HTML (chunked or not), PDF (with images, bookmarks, thumbnails and hyperlinks), PS, RTF and TXT versions.
All aspects of document processing are handled, including automatic Index generation, display of Mathematics in TeX quality both online and in print formats, as well as the use of bibliographic databases with RefDB. Special care is taken so that the document processing is as transparent to the user as possible - the aim being that the user writes in LyX, then presses a button, and the lyxtox script does the rest. Download the documentation and the LyX-to-X package from the Formats section.
In case you are not satisfied with the current state of LyX DocBook capabilities and you understand DocBook well, you can help us to improve the situation, see also this bug.